In the cross-section of retaining wall, the part directly contacted with
the supported soil is called the back of the wall; the empty part
opposite the back of the wall is called the wall; the part directly
contacted with the foundation is called the base; the top of the wall
opposite to the base is called the top of the wall; the front end of the
base is called the toe of the wall; and the back end of the base is
called the heel of the wall.
1. Wall Structure
1) back of the wall
The back of the inclined wall is suitable for the shoulder wall or
embankment wall with flat ground at the cutting wall and the toe of the
wall. The slope of the back of the inclined wall should not be slowed
down to 1:0.3, usually from 1:0.15 to 1:0.25.